Nasal, Septal and Adenoid surgeries are sometimes performed in order to open the nasal breathing passages and permit easier breathing. The constant nasal airway obstruction is typically in contrast to the dynamic collapse seen at the level of the palate or tongue, but needs to be considered in every case of Obstructive Sleep Apnea airway reconstruction. Indeed, more than half of the OSA patient population will have findings of nasal airway compromise. Reconstruction of the nose is called rhinoplasty and may be performed to enhance appearance or for functional reasons. The quality of the tissue around the nostrils or deeper in the nose can cause restricted breathing. Weak or malpositioned cartilages around the nostrils can impede nasal breathing as will a droopy nasal tip or excessively narrow nostrils. A "nose job" directed at improving breathing will also usually enhance appearance.
Adverse cosmetic and functional outcomes can sometimes be seen after rhinoplasty. Real and perceived cosmetic deformities are possible. The best result is the nose that looks natural for a given face.
The nasal turbinates are horizontal ridges within the nose. These may become chronically enlarged usually as a result of allergies. Reduction in the size of the turbinates will improve nasal air flow.
The nasal septum divides the nose into right and left nasal passages. A septal deviation is an alteration of the relatively straight and midline position of the septum. If the septum is crooked, it may cause blockage of the nasal breathing passage. It can be straightened in order to improve breathing and is called a septoplasty.
An enlarged adenoid may occasionally interfere with breathing. The adenoid is located in the very back of the nasal cavity above the soft palate. An adenoidectomy removes this excess tissue to allow for unrestricted airflow through the nasal passages and upper throat. Although this is most commonly performed in children, it may be indicated in teenagers or young adults.