Absolute Neutrophil Count
A measure of the number of neutrophils in the blood. Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell. They help the body fight infection. An absolute neutrophil count may be used to check for infection, inflammation, leukemia, and other conditions. Cancer treatment, such as chemotherapy, may reduce the absolute neutrophil count. Also called ANC.
A less than normal amount of red blood cells.
A substance that blocks the effects of estrogen on tumors. Antiestrogens are used to treat breast cancers that depend on estrogen for growth.
The removal of fluid or tissue from a specific area of the body.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
The most common type of skin cancer that grows slowly and is almost always curable.
A tumor that does not grow into surrounding tissue or spread to other parts of the body.
Occurring on both sides of the body.
The surgical removal of a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination to determine if cancer cells are present.
The red and white cells and platelets produced in the bone marrow that make up blood.
The number of both white and red blood cells and platelets as determined by examination of blood under a microscope.
Intense increases in pain that occur with rapid onset even when pain control medication is being used.
Surgery that rebuilds the breast contour after mastectomy. A breast implant or the women's own tissue is used. If desired, the nipple and areola may also be re-created. Reconstruction can be done at the time of mastectomy or any time later.
Breast Self-Exam (BSE)
A method of checking one's own breasts for lumps or suspicious changes.
The insertion of a flexible, lighted tube through the mouth and into the lungs allowing the physician to examine and take a biopsy of the lungs and bronchi (breathing tubes).
A general term for a large group of diseases in which there is uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.
A cell that divides and reproduces abnormally and has the potential to spread throughout the body, crowding out normal cells and tissue.
A substance that causes cancer.
A malignant tumor that begins in the lining layer (epithelial cells) of organs.
Carcinoma in situ
The earliest stage of cancer, in which the tumor is still confined to the local area.
Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan
Using a machine that takes pictures of cross sections of the body, a CT Scan can show the anatomy of the brain and other parts of your body that cannot be seen by regular X-ray.
The use of more than one drug during cancer treatments.
Complete Remission/Complete Response (CR)
The disappearance of all signs of cancer in response to treatment.
A procedure that removes a significant part or most of a tumor in cases where it is not possible to remove all of it. This may make subsequent radiotherapy or chemotherapy easier and more effective.
Identifying a disease by its signs or symptoms, the use of imaging procedures, and/or laboratory findings.
The ability of cancer cells to resist the effects of a specific drug.
A lump or abscess that may be caused by injury or disease.
A type of white blood cell.
A cancer that is still confined to the site of origin.
Removal of a lump and a small amount of surrounding tissue.
The tissues and organs (including lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and bone marrow) that produce and store lymphocytes (cells that fight infection) and the channels that carry the lymph fluid.
Swelling caused by the obstruction of the lymphatic vessels.
Hundreds of small oval bodies that contain lymph, a clear yellowish fluid resembling blood plasma. Lymph nodes act as our first line of defense against infection and cancers.
White blood cells that kill viruses and defend against the invasion of foreign material.
Treatment that relieves pain and other symptoms of disease but does not cure the disease.
A decrease in the size of a tumor or in the extent of cancer.
A break in a bone that has been weakened by cancer or some disease condition.
The study of diseases by examination of body fluids and tissue.
A doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and classification of diseases by laboratory tests such as examination of tissue and cells under a microscope. The pathologist determines whether a tumor is benign or cancerous and, if cancerous, the exact cell type and grade.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan
Imagery test that measures metabolic activity.
Tiny areas of bleeding under skin, usually due to a low platelet count.
A painful swelling of the vein.
An inactive substance that looks the same as and is administered in the same way as a drug in a clinical trial.
A small cell in the blood responsible for clotting.
An overgrowth of tissue projecting into a body cavity.
Abnormal changes in a cell that tends to become malignant.
The place where the cancer starts to grow.
The place where cancer begins. Primary cancer is usually named after the organ in which it starts. For example, cancer that starts in the breast is always breast cancer even if it spreads (metastasizes) to other organs, such as bones or lungs.
One of the female hormones produced by the ovaries.
A statement about the likely outcome of a disease in a specific patient.
The spreading or growing of disease, with or without treatment.
Cancer that is increasing in scope or severity.
Treatment designed to prevent a disease complication likely to develop but has not yet appeared.
Disease prevention measures.
Basis of body structures such as skin and hair and of substances such as enzymes and antibodies.
The treatment plan which includes the drugs, dosages and dates for the cancer treatment.
A study using either X-rays or radioactive isotopes to produce images of internal body organs.
The search for cancer in apparently healthy people who have no cancer symptoms.
A tumor that develops as a result of spreading beyond the original cancer.
Bacterial growth in the blood.
Reaction from drugs or therapies that are not intended or wanted.
Signal Transduction Pathways
Cellular information highways that relay external messages like hormones and growth factors to the inside of cells to trigger physiological responses.
Cancer that is neither decreasing nor increasing in extent or severity.
An organized process of determining how far a cancer has spread.
Drugs used to relieve swelling and inflammation.
The percentage of people who live a certain period of time. The 5-year survival rate refers to the percent of patients who live at least 5 years after diagnosis, and 5-year rates are used to produce a standard way of discussing prognosis.
Disease that involves the whole body rather than just one area.
Treatment that reaches and affects cells throughout the body; for example, chemotherapy.
Lexington Clinic is Central Kentucky’s largest and oldest medical group. With 200+ providers in more than 30 specialties, we have been taking care of 600,000+ patients annually in the Lexington community since 1920.